Kharisma Cleverian

Learning theories is started by behaviorism which is proposed by E. L. Thorndike stated that learning is happened through the form of stimuli and response and supported by reward and punishment. This theory is felt not good enough in teaching and learning process of the human being. Then, John Dewey constructs a new theory of Constructivism. This theory encourages the students to create their knowledge based on their own experience, applying these ideas to a new situation, and integrating the new knowledge gained with pre-existing intellectual constructs (Berns & Erickson, 2001). The third one is CTL which is provides a constructivist model. In this theory direct instruction can help the students to reach the learning goal which required higher-order thinking skill.
According to contextual learning theory, learning happens when students can process and manage new information became their own understanding and save it in their memory (Carreer, 2012). To get a good understanding, the multiple aspects of any learning environment, like classroom and laboratory became the focus of this theory. When the students get the understanding, they can create a concept of knowledge, because it comes from process discovering, reinforcing and relating.
In contextual learning theory three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and systemic aspects) (Mooij, 2004).

Dease (2012) stated that CTL is a theory which is based on the notion that learning can only occur when students are able to connect between content and context. Febby (2011) define CTL as a concept of learning that help teachers link between the materials taught with real-world situations o students and encourage students to make connection between the knowledge possessed by its application in their lives as family members and the community.
Johnson (2010) said that CTL is based on the discovery that the students find meaning in their schoolwork when they join the content of academic subjects’ lessons with the context of daily life. Contextualized Teaching and Learning (CTL) is identified as a promising strategy that actively engages students and promotes improved learning and skills development (Baker, Hope & Karandjef, 2009).

Wijarwadi (2008) explains some principles in CTL:
As one basic principle of CTL, constructivism requires the students to active in improve their knowledge and skill. It produces adaptive behavior to the environment.

It is a complex idea in any contexts and it can be done by asking, seeking for truth the information and knowledge. In the teaching and learning activity, inquiry process can be done like formulating problem, collecting data through observation, analyzing and presenting data and communicating and presenting the result of data to the readers, classmates, and the other audients.

It is the important aspect of learning and it is the beginning of the knowledge. In teaching and learning process, it can be used to check the student’s understanding, problem which is aced by the students, stimuli response from the students, measuring students’ curiosity, focusing student attention, and refreshing students’ prior knowledge.

Learning Community
Students can learn with their friends or certain community to share the information and knowledge.

Teacher plays a role to give an example or the students, he/ she demonstrate what the students want to learn.

Teacher can do this activity in the end of the teaching and learning process. It uses to repeat what the students learn. The teacher gives some information about the lesson, makes some notes in students’ book and suggestion room the students about the lesson.

Authentic Assessment
It is a process of collecting data which gives information about the students learning development. Authentic assessment has some characteristics: Involves real world experience, Allows access to information, Encourages the use of computer, dictionary and human resources, Engages the students by relevance, Uses open-ended format, Includes self-assessment and reflection, Warrant effort and practice, Identifies strength to enable students to show what they can do and Make assessment criteria clearer to students. Based on Ketter and Arnold (2003) the CTL model places specific emphasis on delivery of curriculum through contextualized teaching and learning strategies and use of community-based experiences, workplace experiences, and school contexts to inform teaching and learning

In this theory, teacher as a facilitator should prepare some concepts before delivered the material, like:
a.Construct lesson plan which developmentally appropriate for the students. Curriculum and method of teaching should be based on the students’ social, emotional, and intellectual development.
b.Make an interdependent learning group. The students can learn from their other friend, share information and solve the problems.
c.Construct environment which support self-regulated learning. Teacher should encourage the self-confident of the students, when the students know their own strengths and weaknesses they can make some strategies to develop their knowledge.
d.Diversity of the students is important for the teacher to know the students’ background and construct the appropriate teaching strategies.
e.Address the multiple intelligences of the students. There are eight learning orientation such factors as hearing or seeing language, involvement, music, numbers, visualization, human movement, interaction with others and leading.
f.Questioning techniques can be use to develop the problem solving and the question should be made to produce level of thinking, response and action.
g.Authentic assessment can be used to evaluate the students’ understanding of the material.

We can applied some strategies in teaching and learning process using CTL (Johnson, 2010), there are:
Making meaningful connection
Students as a learners can work in group or individual, they should be active to o=improve their interest and construct themselves to learn by doing.

Doing significant work
Students can put themselves in the various environments, like as business marker or citizen.

Self-regulated learning
Doing a work, the students should take the responsibilities for the purpose, decision and the result of the work. To reach those things, students should interact and make a connection with the others, so they can share together.

Teacher constructs the students to work together in group. It helps the students to understand the material easily and they can make a good communication each others.
Critical and creative thinking
Students can improve their critical thinking. The improvement of the critical thinking can be indicated if the students are able to analyze, synthesize, tackle the problem, make a decision and think logically.

Nurturing the individual
Students can get their successfulness with their own effort, but they should respect the others. To motivate themselves, they can carry, understand, give attention, and possess high wishes.

Reaching high standards
By having high standards in life, the students motivate themselves to be better and better. They can use their ability to reach their standard.

Using authentic assessment
Using their academic knowledge, students can connect the real world with certain purpose.

By using the combination of those strategies, can help the students to learn easily. The role of the teacher and the parents can support the successful of the students. CTL theory strategies include:
Simulated or real problem is the beginning of CTL; students use their critical thinking to solve the problem.

Using multiple contexts
The development of knowledge cannot be separated with the physical and social context. How and where students create the knowledge is an important aspect, beside that students’ experience and students’ environment also support the development of the knowledge.

Drawing upon student diversity
The population of the students is diverse, this differentiation helps the students to improve and develop their interpersonal skill.

Supporting self-regulated learning
Students are created to become lifelong education, with this condition students must aware with the process of information, problem solving strategies and background knowledge. So, they are encouraged to move from dependent into independent learners.

Using interdependent learning groups
Students make their own group to share the information and knowledge, so they can share each other. In this condition, the role of the teacher is as a facilitator.
Employing authentic assessments
CTL prepare the students in real life, with the authentic/ real assessment students are given opportunity to improve themselves and it used to monitor the students’ progress.

Problem-based learning
Problem-solving investigator is connected to the students in some areas; it needs integrative skill and concepts.

Cooperative learning
It is a small group of students which is created to solve the problem and achieve the goal o the learning.

Project-based learning
It focused in concepts and principles of discipline and also allows the students to construct their own meaning.

Service learning
Application of a new knowledge is provided to support community’s projects and activities.

Work-based learning
Workplace is connected to the students’ environment for their benefit.

Satriani (2012) mention some advantages of CTL like engaging students in the activity increasing students’ motivation to participate actively in the writing class, helping students to construct their writing, especially recount text, helping students to solve their problem providing ways for students to discuss or interact with their friends, helping the students to summarize and reflect the lesson.
The following section provides a brief summary of several relevant learning theories and highlights their implications for a CTL practice based on Baker, Hope & Karandjef (2009), they are:
Motivation Theory
In this paradigm, learners are assumed to be: self-directed, enriched by a diversity of personal experience, ready to learn, life-centered, task- centered and problem-centered and motivated by internal factors.

Problem-Centered Learning
Five components to an effectively designed problem-centered learning experience including: first, engagement of students in a progression of tasks leading to a logical conclusion. Second, activation of existing cognitive structures of recall and experience, enhanced through collaboration and demonstration. Third, learner observation of skills and connection to concepts being learned (peer discussion and demonstration). Fourth, application of new knowledge is followed by intrinsic or corrective feedback. Fifth, integration and demonstration of new information.

Social Learning Theory
The research on the effectiveness of CTL strategies is well supported by theories involving collaborative learning. Collaborative learning rests on social cognitive theories suggesting that students’ learning can be facilitated and enhanced by connectivity to peers. According to this theory, students and instructors need to understand each other’s roles and further, students must learn collaborative skills in order for this approach to be successful.

Learning Styles
While learning is at once social, instruction must also account for the differences in students’ individual learning styles. Students present such a wide variety of traits, experiences and preferences to the learning task, effective instruction must include some considerations of the different ways in which students learn.

Brain Research
Research on how the brain processes information adds a new dimension to our understanding of the learning process. In the language of brain research, effective instruction creates changes in the brain: that change is “learning.”

These teaching strategies are relating, experiencing, applying, cooperating and transferring.

Baker, E. D., Hope, L. & Karandjef, K. 2009. Contextualized Teaching & Learning: A Faculty Primer. Available online on http://www.cccbsi.org/Websites/basicskills/Images/CTL.pdf. Retrieved on November 1st 2012

Berns, R.B. & Erickson, P.M. 2001. Contextual teaching ad learning preparing students for the new economy. Available online on. Retrieved on November 1st 2012

Career, C. D. P. 2012. What is Contextual Teaching and Learning?. Available online on. Retrieved on November 1st 2012

Dease, A. 2012. Contextual Teaching and Learning Theory. Available online on. Retrieved on November 1st 2012

Febby. 2011. Definition of Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL). Available online on. Retrieved on November 1st 2012

Johnson, E. B. 2010. Contextual Teaching and Learning Defined. Available online on. Retrieved on November 1st 2012

Satriani, I., Emilia, E. & Gunawan, M.H. 2012. Contextual teaching and learning approach to teaching writing. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics. Vol. 2, pp. 10-22. Available online on ejournal.upi.edu/index.php/IJAL/article/download/70/36. Retrieved on November 1st 2012

Wijarwadi, W. 2008. The Effectiveness of Contextual Teaching and Learning in Teaching Speaking: An Experimental Study at the First Grade Students of SMAN 1 Ciputat Academic Year 2007/2008. Paper Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta. Available online on db4.wikispaces.com/file/view/rc18-THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING IN TEACHING SPEAKING.pdf. Retrieved on November 1st 2012

Ketter, C. T. & Arnold, J. 2003. Implementing Contextual Teaching and Learning: Case Study of Nancy, a High School Science Novice Teacher. Available online on citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= Retrieved on November 1st 2012

Mooij, T. 2004. Contextual learning theory: Concrete form and a software prototype to improve early education. Available online on http://www.tlu.ee Retrieved on November 1st 2012


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